An Ed-Fi ODS / API platform is a secure, modern, RESTful interface for hosting and exchanging commonly shared K–12 education information. The API exchanges data using JSON and XML, so client application developers can connect using any modern platform and programming language.
This section covers fundamental information about how client applications interact with an Ed-Fi ODS / API platform.
Data Model Overview
What kind of data is contained in an Ed-Fi ODS / API platform? How is it structured?
An Ed-Fi ODS / API platform supports a rich and detailed data model about students, teachers, grades, assessments, and other data typically found in the K–12 education space. The data model is extensible, which means that platform hosts can customize the information to suit their specific needs. The core data model used by most implementers contains detailed data structures and associations for the following information domains:
- Bell Schedule
- Education Organization
- School Calendar
- Student Academic Record
- Student Attendance
- Student Cohort
- Student Identification and Demographics
- Teaching and Learning
- Alternative/Supplemental Services, including:
- Career and Technical Education
- Migrant Education
- Special Education
- Title I Part A Services
The data model used in an Ed-Fi ODS / API is based on the Ed-Fi Data Standard. If you’re new to the Ed-Fi Data Standard, the Unifying Data Model documentation is useful in exploring the details of the domain models listed above.
How does the Ed-Fi ODS / API express the Ed-Fi data model?
The endpoints or Resources in Ed-Fi ODS / API are domain aggregates that have been identified from the Unifying Data Model (UDM) according to the principles of Domain-Driven Design (DDD). Domain aggregates are entities (and in some cases associations) that include other entities, their attributes, and associations. The subordinate entities, attributes, and associations of a domain aggregate are not directly accessible and can only be referenced through the aggregate root. In the table below, the domain aggregate for a Course is constructed from a number of course-related entities in the Ed-Fi UDM.
Sample Domain Aggregate:
When a domain aggregate is constructed from related entities and associations, API applies name shortening to remove redundancy in the property names by dropping the parent entity prefix from the property names of object and collection properties as defined in the data model. This rule is applied to the embedded object and collection properties and not to scalar properties. While this removes unnecessary redundancy from the JSON object names, this can result in property names in the API differing from those in the Data Handbook.
Examples of name shortening:
|Domain Aggregate/Resource||Entity||Data Model Property Name||Shortened API Model Property Name|
Exceptions to name shortening:
- Name shortening is not applied to known identifiers like 'USI', 'Id', and 'TypeId'.
- Name shortening is not applied to the properties that are resource references.
- Name shortening is not applied to scalar properties.
- Name shortening is not applied when applying this naming convention to a child property's name will result in a collision with another property's name.
The Using the Online Documentation section provides a great overview of the API surface — and the documentation itself is a complete reference for a core API implementation that defines the endpoints, JSON payloads, element definitions, parameter options, and other useful technical information.
How do clients exchange information with the API? What format is used?
The API supports transactional data loading scenarios, so client applications can stay connected in near real-time. The API uses JSON for real-time and transactional data exchange. However there are utilities that can aid in uploading data in batch mode via the API (e.g., Bulk Load Client Utility can be used to bulk load XML data and Data Import can be used to bulk load CSV data).
How is the student information exchanged between clients and platforms kept secure? What technologies are involved?
The Ed-Fi ODS / API uses OAuth 2.0 Client Credentials Grant Flow for authentication. API platform hosts manage and securely distribute the OAuth keys and secrets required to connect to production platforms. Not surprisingly, clients and platforms talk to each other over HTTPS. If you've used OAuth before, the steps will be familiar — but if you haven't, the Authentication section of this documentation has a step-by-step walkthrough of the process.
Once client systems are authenticated, authorization in the Ed-Fi ODS / API works like a typical system: client applications are associated with a set of permissions that define the API resources available and what operations can be done on those resources. Some ODS / API platform hosts assign "profiles" to clients according to the general type of system. These profiles work similarly to a database view, constraining what a client application can "see." See the Authorization section of this documentation for a conceptual overview and implementation details.
Code Generation & SDKs for Clients
The surface of the API seems to cover a lot of information – which means developers need to write a lot of code. Can any of that be automated?
We're glad you asked: yes. The Ed-Fi ODS / API exposes metadata according to the excellent, open-source OpenAPI specification — which allows client developers to generate data access code directly from the API surface. This generated code is referred to as an SDK. Some API platform hosts will publish an SDK aligned to their specific system – but most simply expose the metadata that allows clients to do the data access code generation themselves. This allows client developers to tailor the data access to their particular coding style and performance needs. Another advantage of these SDKs is that they can easily be regenerated to reflect any changes to the underlying data model of the host’s data model.